Frequency Multipliers
15 Nov 2010



RAL Space has extensive experience in the design, manufacture and test of frequency multipliers based on Schottky and Heterostructure Barrier Varactor diodes.




Frequency multipliers are devices that generates an output signal of which the output frequency is a multiple or harmonic of its input frequency. For building sources at sub-millimetre or terahertz (THz) frequencies, it is more economical to develop low frequency sources using inexpensive devices and then use a series of frequency multipliers to extend it to higher frequencies. 

Local Oscillator sources of millimetre and submillimetre wave heterodyne systems are realised by the use of solid-state diode multipliers. Our multipliers are primarily developed for ground-based, air-borne, and space-borne instruments for remote sounding applications in areas such as astronomy and Earth observation.

​The Millimetre-Wave Technology (MMT) group specialises in fixed-tuned custom waveguide designs for both low and high order multiplication. They are available as frequency doublers an​d triplers with varying bandwidth and input power handling capability.  Typical examples of our multipliers are shown in the table below; the majority of which have been optimised for specific projects. We are continuously developing new range of multipliers so please contact Dr Manju Henry if specific performances are required. ​

The MMT group undertakes development work of multipliers for a variety of government institutions, national/international funding agencies and industry. Under a major programme with the European Space Agency and Airbus Defence & Space, we are currently building space-qualified multipliers for the receivers used in the instruments foreseen for the MetOP Second Generation (SG) satellites such as Microwave Sounder (MWS), Microwave Imager (MWI), and Ice Cloud Imager (ICI). The Group is collaborating with OxCam and developing THz Local Oscillator chains for pumping Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer focal plane array receivers. Previously, our multiplier devices were used in receivers and radiometers developed for ground-based, air-borne and space-borne instruments such as Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) radio telescope and International Sub-millimetre Microwave Airborne Radiometers. 

Frequency multipliers are used in frequency synthesisers and as Local Oscillator chains in radars and communication systems. It can also be used as frequency extenders in millimetre or submillimetre test equipment.

Typical multipliers and performances

RAL MultiplierTypeFrequency Band (GHz)Input Power (mW)

Typical multiplier Efficiency (%)

DoublerLow Power344-380188
DoublerMedium Power310-3405015
DoublerLow Power, Broadband200-2702012
DoublerMedium Power218-2305020
DoublerHigh Power185-20020022
DoublerHigh Power155-170200 30
DoublerMedium Power160-1926025
DoublerLow Power
DoublerHigh Power, Broadband100-14020021
DoublerMedium Power112-1245034
TriplerHigh Power240-2953006
TriplerMedium Power75-1101008

​For more information, please contact: 

Dr Manju Henry – MMT Group Scientist

Professor Brian Ellison – MMT Group Leader ​​

For more information please contact: RAL Space Enquiries